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Sabtu, 23 April 2011

LEARNING MODEL constructivism


1. Introduction

 
         The progress of communications and information technology developed so rapidly in the era of globalization, bringing a very radical change. The change that has impacted on every aspect of life, including in the system of education and learning. The impact of the extraordinary changes that the formation of a 'global kumonitas', even worse because of the global community turned out to arrive much faster than that calculated: revulusi information has presented the new world that is really hyper-reality.

         As a result of changes so fast, people can no longer rely only on a set of values, beliefs, and patterns of social activity are constant. Humans continually forced to reassess the position in relation to these factors in order membangu a social construction, which allows personal or seem possible. If communities are able to survive the challenges of change in a world of knowledge, technology, communication and social construction of this culture, then we hasrus develop new processes to deal with these new problems. We can no longer rely on past answers because the answers are so fast does not apply in line with the changes. Knowledge, methods, and skills into something that is out of date almost the same time these things give the results. Degeng (1998) states that we have entered the era of chaos. The era of chaos can not be answered with the paradigm of order, predictability, and order. The era of chaos must be faced with chaos paradigm. The era of chaos is based on the theories and concepts of constructivism, a learning theory that is now being adopted in educational circles in the U.S.. The most important element in constructivism is freedom and diversity. Freedom in question is the freedom to make choices according to the pa which is able and willing to do the study. The diversity in question is the individual starts to realize that different from people / other groups, and people / other groups differ with individual.
 
        Alternative learning approaches for Indonesia as it puts the reform as a discourse of nation and state, not just in education, but also in all areas. During this, our discourse is oriented Behavioristic uniformity that ultimately formed the Indonesian people who are very difficult to appreciate the difference. Different behavior is more seen as a mistake that must be punished. Indonesian human behavior so far has been infected with the virus in common, viruses regularity, and furthermore, these viruses that control our behavior in the state and nation. Longworth (1999) phenomenon summarizes this by stating: 'We need to change our focus and what needs to be learned how to learn. Changes that must happen is a change of content into the process. Learning how to learn to learn something into a matter that is more important than the facts and concepts learned it themselves'.
Therefore, education should prepare individuals to be ready to live in a world where the problems appear much faster than the answer to these problems, where uncertainty and ambiguity of change can be faced openly, in which the individual has the skills it needs to continually adjust their relationship with a world that is constantly changing, and where each of us to be givers and the meaning of our existence. Beare & Slaughter (1993) assert, 'This does not only mean new techniques in education, but also a new destination. The aim of education should be fatherly develop a society in which people can live more comfortably with the change than with any certainty. In the world of the future, the ability to deal with new things properly is more important than the ability to know dang repeat old things.

        The need for new orientation in education was so strong and evident in the various fields of study, both in the field of exact sciences studies and social sciences. The educators, educational practitioners and all of us, would not want to respond to changes that occur by changing the paradigm of education. To address and overcome the changes that occur on an ongoing basis, an alternative that can be used is paradigmna constructivism।


2. Itself Behavioristic Learning and Constructivist Learning

 
a. Learning Itself Behavioristic

 
        Thornike, one Behavioristic Saxon, states that learning is an event the formation of associations between events that sisebut stimulus (S) ® with the response provided on the stimulus. Thorndike statement is based on the results of experiments in the laboratory using several types of animals such as cats, dogs, monkeys and chickens. According to him, from berbeagai situation provided an animal will give a number of responses, and actions that can be formed depending on the strength keneksi or ties between the situations and certain response. Then he concludes that all human behavior both thoughts and actions can be analyzed in two parts of a simple structure, namely the stimulus and response. Thus, according to this view the basis of learning is the formation of associations between stimulus and response. Therefore, according to Hudojo (1990:14) Thondike theory is called the theory of association
. Furthermore, Thorndike (in Orton, 1991:39-40; Resnick, 1981:13) suggested that the association between stimulus and response is to follow the following laws: (1) law practice (law of exercise), when the association between the stimulus serting and response occurs, then the association will be formed stronger. Interpretation of this law is more often a knowledge - that has been formed by the association of liver between stimulus and response - are trained (used), then the association will become stronger, (2) Legal effect (law of effect), ie when the association formed between stimulus and response is followed by a satisfying then the association will increase. This means (ideally), if a response is given by a person against a stimulus was correct and he knows it, then satisfaction is achieved and the association will be strengthened.
 
         Adherents understand the psychology of the other behavior that is Skinner's, believes almost in line with the legal consequences of Thorndike. He argues that the most important element in learning is a reinforcement (reinforcement). The point is that knowledge is formed through the bond stimulus - response will be stronger when given reinforcement. Skinner's reinforcement divide this into two, namely positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement as a stimulus, when its representation accompany a behavior that tends to increase the occurrence of repetitive behavior that. While negative reinforcement is a stimulus that is removed / eliminated because it tends to reinforce the behavior (Bell, 1981:151).
 
b. Constructivist learning Itself
 
        Formation of knowledge according to the Constructivism views on the subject of creating cognitive structures in interaction with the environment. With the help of this cognitive structure, the subjects develop understanding reality. Cognitive interaction will happen as far as reality is formulated through cognitive structures created by the subject itself. Cognitive Structures always have to be changed and adjusted according to the demands of the environment and the organism that is changing. The adjustment process occurs continuously through the process of reconstruction.Most important in the theory of constructivism is that the learning process, learning to get the emphasis. It is they who must actively develop their knowledge, not the learner or others. Those who must be responsible for the results of their study. The emphasis on student learning should be developed. Creativity and activeness students will help them to stand alone in the cognitive life of students.
 
         Learn more focused on experimental learning is an adaptation of humanity based on concrete experiences in the lab, discussion with classmates, made the ideas and the development of new concepts. Therefore accentuation of educating and teaching does not focus on the educators but to the learners.Some things that get attention constructivism learning, namely: (1) give priority to learning that are evident in the relevant context, (2) give priority to the process, (3) instill pembelajran in the context of social experience, (4) performed in an effort to construct the learning experience (Pranata , http://puslit.petra.ac.id/journals/interior).
 
         The nature of constructivist learning by Brooks & Brooks in Degeng say that knowledge is non-objective, is temporary in nature, always changing, and uncertain. Learning is seen as preparing the knowledge of concrete experience, collaborative activities, and reflection and interpretation. To teach is to organize the environment for the learning motivation in exploring the meaning and value uncertainty. On this basis then the study will have a different understanding of knowledge tepend on his experiences, and perspectives used in interpreting them।
3. Aspects of Constructivist Learning

 
          Fornot argued aspects of constructivism aspects as follows: adaptation (adaptation), the concept of the environment (the concept of envieronmet), and the formation of meaning (the construction of meaning). Of the three aspects by J. Piaget means of adaptation to the environment is done through two processes of assimilation and accommodation.Assimilation is the cognitive process in which a person integrates perceptions, concepts or new experiences into the scheme or pattern that already exists in his mind. Assimilation is seen as a cognitive process which locates and classifies events or new stimuli in the existing scheme. This assimilation process continued. Assimilation will not cause a change / turnover but the development of schemata schemata. Assimilation is one of the individual in adapting and organizing themselves to new environments understanding man evolved.
 
          Accommodation, in the face of new stimuli or experiences a person can not assimilate the new experience with schemata that is already held. Experience the new bias so completely at odds with the existing scheme. In such circumstances, people will make accommodations. Accommodation occurs to form a new scheme that matches the new stimulus or modify the existing scheme so that it matches the stimulus. For Piaget adaptation is an equilibrium between assimilation and accommodation. If in the process of assimilation a person can not make adaptations to their environment, and there was imbalance (disequilibrium). As a result of imbalance is then achieved accommodation and existing cognitive structures that will experience or the emergence of new structure. Intellectual growth is a continuous process on the state of imbalance and the state of equilibrium (disequilibrium-equilibrium). But if there is equilibrium, the individual will be at a higher level than before.
         Depth of knowledge or knowledge of this hierarchy by Vygotskian called scaffolding. Scaffolding, give to an individual means a large amount of aid during the early stages of learning and then reduce the aid and provide the opportunity for children to take over greater responsibility as soon as able to undertake its own. Assistance given learner can be a guide, warning, encouragement, outlines the problem into another form that allows students to be independent. Vygotsky suggests three categories of student achievement in its efforts to solve the problem, namely (1) students achieve success with both, (2) students achieve success with help, (3) students failed to achieve success. Scaffolding, means that learners attempt to guide students in their efforts to achieve success. Encouragement of teachers are needed for the achievement of students to pursue higher degrees to be optimum.
 
       Vygotskian constructivism views that knowledge is constructed collaboratively between the individual and the situation can be customized by each individual. The process of cognition directed memalui intellectual adaptation in the context of social culture. Adjustment process is equivalent to the construction of intra-individual knowledge that is through a process of internal self-regulation. In this connection, the constructivist Vygotskian more emphasis on the application of the exchange of ideas between individuals.
Two important principles derived from Vygotsky theory are: (1), on the functions and importance of language in social communication that begins the process of pencanderaan of sign (sign) up to the exchange of information and knowledge, (2) zone of proximal development. Learners as the mediator has a role to encourage and facilitate students in their efforts to build knowledge, understanding and competence.
 
        Important contribution Vygotsky theory is an emphasis on learning the nature sosiakultural. The core theory is Vygotsky emphasized the interaction between internal and external aspects of learning and its emphasis on social learning environment. According to the theory of Vygotsky, human cognitive function is derived from social interactions of each individual in cultural context. Vygotsky also believes that learning occurs when students are working on tasks that have not been studied but these tasks are still within range of abilities or tasks that are within their zone of proximal development. Zone of proximal development is the area between the actual developmental level is defined as the ability to solve problems independently and the level of potential development is defined as the ability of problem solving under adult guidance or more capable peers.

        
Knowledge and understanding is constructed when a person involved in the dialogue and socially active in the experiments and experiences. The formation of meaning is a dialogue between this personal in students not only need access to physical experiences but also interaction with the experience possessed by other individuals. The nature of cooperative learning (cooperative learning) occurs when students work together to achieve learning objectives desired by students. The management of class, cooperative learning aimed at helping students to develop intentions and tips to cooperate and interact with other students. There are three important things to note in classroom management are: grouping, cooperative and arrangement spirit class. (Pranata, http://puslit.petra.ac.id/journals/interior/.

4. Constructivist Learning Design


         Based on the theory J. Peaget and Vygotsky that has been stated above, learning can be designed / constructivist learning model designed in the class as follows:First, the identification of prior knowledge and misconceptions. Early identification of the intuitive notion that they have to their environment Dragnet to know the possibilities would be the emergence of cognitive structures descend misconceptions students. The identification was carried out with initial tests, interviews . Second, the preparation of learning programs. Learning programs are translated in the form of lesson units. Third orientation and elicitasi, a situation conducive learning and fun it is to be created at the beginning of learning to arouse their interest to the topic to be discussed. Students are guided so that they would put forward the idea of ​​intuitive as much as possible about the physical symptoms they observe in everyday life environment. Oengungkapan idea to memalui discussion, writing, drawing illustrations and so forth. The ideas were then considered together. The atmosphere of learning is made easy and less intimidating for students not to worry scorned and ridiculed when his ideas are wrong. Teachers should refrain from judgmental. Truth will be answered students' ideas and reasoning revealed itself through the stages of cognitive conflict. Fourth, reflection. In this phase, various ideas are misconceptions which appear on the stage of orientation and elicitasi direflesikan with misconceptions that have been enmeshed in the early stages. Such misconceptions are classified based on the level of error. Fifth, resrtukturisasi ideas, (a) challenge, students are given the questions about symptoms which can then be demonstrated or investigated in the lab. They were asked to predict the results of the experiment and give reasons to support that prediction. (B) cognitive conflict and class discussions. Students will daapt see for themselves whether they are right or wrong predictions. They are encouraged to test the confidence to conduct experiments. If their prediction is missed, they will experience cognitive conflict and the start was not satisfied with their ideas. Then they are encouraged to think about the simplest explanation that can account for as much as possible the symptoms that they have seen. Attempts to find this explanation made by the process of confrontation through discussions with friends or teachers who are on kapasistasnya as facilitator and mediator. (C) rebuild the conceptual framework. Students are led to discover for yourself that the new concepts that have internal consistency. Shows that the new scientific concept that has the advantage of the old ideas. Sixth, the application. Convince students of the benefits to switch to the conception of the conception of scientific misconceptions. Encourage them to apply scientific concepts in a variety of situations to solve problems that instructive and then empirically test the solution. They will be able to compare them with misconceptions explicitly penjelasa scientifically. Seventh, a review conducted to review the success of the learning strategies that have taken place in an effort to reduce the misconceptions that appear in early learning. Revision of learning strategy performed when a recurring misconception is frightening resistant. This is important for these misconceptions are resistant not always descend cognitive structure, which in turn will lead to learning difficulties and low achievement students.

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