Sabtu, 15 Januari 2011

CVs of the Minister of National Education on Keep Our Example

1. Ki Hajar Dewantara
Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat (EYD: Suwardi Suryaningrat, since 1922 to Ki Hajar Dewantara, EYD: Ki Hajar Dewantara, some written with the Javanese language sounds Ki Hajar Dewantoro; born in Yogyakarta, May 2, 1889 - died in Yogyakarta, 26 April 1959 at the age of 69. Hereinafter abbreviated as "Soewardi" or "KHD" is the Indonesian independence movement activist, columnist, politician, and pioneer of education for the natives of Indonesia from the Dutch colonial era. He is the founder of Taman Siswa University, an institution that provides opportunities for indigenous commoners to be able to obtain the right to education as well as the nobility and the Dutch people.
Date of birth in Indonesia is now commemorated as National Education Day. Part of the motto of his creations, tut wuri handayani, became the slogan of the Ministry of National Education. His name is enshrined as one of the name of the Indonesian warship, KRI Ki Hajar Dewantara. Portraits of him immortalized on bills, 20,000 rupiah.
Youth and early career
Soewardi comes from a family environment Sultan Palace. He completed his basic education in the ELS (Elementary School Europe / Netherlands). Then could continue to STOVIA (Bumiputera medical school), but not until the finish due to illness. Later he worked as a writer and journalist in several newspapers, among others, Sediotomo, Midden Java, De Expres, Oetoesan Indies, Kaoem Moeda, Tjahaja Timoer, and Poesara. In his time, he considered the author reliable. His writings are communicative and sharp with the spirit of anti-colonial.
Movement activities
Besides tenacious as a young journalist, he was also active in social and political organization. Since the founding of Boedi Oetomo (BO) in 1908, he was active in the propaganda section to socialize and arouse public awareness of Indonesia (mainly Java) at that time about the importance of unity and unity in the state and nation. The first congress in Yogyakarta BO also organized by him.
Young Soewardi Insulinde also a member organization, a multiethnic organization that dominated the fight for self-government Indo Dutch East Indies, on the influence of Ernest Douwes Dekker (DD). When then DD founded the Indische Partij, Soewardi invited as well.
Als ik eens Nederlander was
When the Dutch government intends to collect donations from residents, including natives, for the celebration of Dutch independence from France in 1913, critical reaction arising from the nationalists, including Soewardi. He later wrote "Een voor Allen Allen Ook voor maar Een" or "One for All, but All for One Also." But the most famous KHD column is "If I'm A Dutch" (original title: "Als ik eens Nederlander was"), published in the newspaper De Expres-led DD, 1913. The contents of this article was spicy at all among the official Dutch East Indies. Text citations are as follows.
"If only I was a Dutchman, I will not hold parties in the country's independence which we have stolen their own independence. Parallel to the road that thought not only unfair, but also does not deserve to be told the inlander give donations to fund the celebration. Idea menyelenggaraan celebration for it, has been insulted them, and now we also rake in his pocket. Let's go ahead and unseen insult it! If I were a Dutchman, the thing that particularly offended my feelings and my friends sebangsaku is the fact that inlander required to join an activity fee not the slightest interest for him. "
Several Dutch officials doubt this article was made by Soewardi own original because language is a different style of his writings prior to this. Even if true he is writing, they assume the DD plays a role in stirring up Soewardi to write with such style.
As a result of this paper he was arrested with the approval of the Governor-General Idenburg and will be exiled to the island of Bangka (his own request.) However, the two colleagues, DD and Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo, protest and eventually three of them were exiled to the Netherlands (1913). These three figures known as "the Three". Soewardi at that time was only 24 years old.
In exile
In exile in the Netherlands, Soewardi active in the organization of students from Indonesia, Indische Vereeniging (Indies Association).
This is where he then pioneered its goals to promote the natives by learning the science of education to obtain Europeesche deed, a prestigious education diploma which later became the foundation in establishing the institution which he founded. In this study Soewardi hooked on the ideas of a number of prominent Western education, such as Froebel and Montessori, and the movement of Indian education, Santiniketan, Tagore family. These influences of the underlying in developing its own education system.
Taman Siswa
Soewardi returned to Indonesia in September 1919. Soon later he joined his brother in schools. Experience of teaching is then used to develop the concept of teaching for the school that she founded on July 3, 1922: Nationaal Onderwijs Instituut Tamansiswa or Tamansiswa National University. When he was 40 years old even by a matter of Javanese calendar, he changed his name to Ki Hajar Dewantara. He no longer uses the title of nobility in front of his name. This is intended so that he can freely close to the people, both physical and mental.
Slogan in the education system he uses now is very well known in education circles Indonesia. In one piece, the motto reads it in the Java language sung ing ngarsa tulada, ing intermediate Mangun intention, tut wuri handayani. ("In front of an example, in the midst of building the spirit, from the back support"). This slogan still used in the education of Indonesian people, especially in schools Tamansiswa Education.
Devotion in the Indonesian independence
In the first cabinet of the Republic of Indonesia, was named Minister of Teaching KHD Indonesia (his post is called as Minister of Education and Cultural) of the first. In 1957 he received an honorary doctorate (doctor honoris causa, Dr.HC) from the oldest university of Indonesia, Gadjah Mada University. For his services in pioneering public education, he declared the "Father of National Education of Indonesia and the day of his birth made the National Education Day (Presidential Decree no. 305 in 1959, November 28, 1959).
He died in Yogyakarta on 26 April 1959.

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