Education in Indonesia is indirectly being in crisis, resulting from rapid changes in outside education. This became the challenges that must be answered by the world of education. If the practices of learning and education in Indonesia is not changed, the Indonesian people will be left behind by other countries. The role of education in preparing students for optimal in public life, then the process and learning model needs to be constantly updated.
Efforts to reform the process, lies in the responsibility of the teacher, how learning is delivered can be understood by their students properly. Thus, the learning process is determined how far teachers can use the methods and models of learning well. Learning model that many kinds, each learning model depends on the aim of learning and teachers' abilities in managing the teaching process.
Mathematics as a sign of development of human intelligence, mathematics is also one way of how to develop mathematical thinking is therefore very necessary for both daily life and in the face of scientific and technological progress. Thus provided with the necessary mathematics learners at an early age. it's time math teacher open a new paradigm in the patterns of mathematics teaching in the classroom. Where is the mathematics that had been regarded as a boring subject and frightening turn into something fun and exciting. Mathematics learning activities carried out with the link between self-development with classroom learning through learning experiences of innovative, challenging and fun.
Selection of appropriate learning models in mathematics will enable students and students realize that math is not always boring. Master only as a facilitator to establish and develop the knowledge itself, not to transfer knowledge.
Around the 1960's, competitive and individualistic learning has dominated education in the United States. Students usually come to school with hopes to compete and pressure from parents to be the best. In the competitive and individualistic learning, teachers place students apart from other students. The words "copying prohibited", "slide your seat," "I want you to work alone" and "do not notice someone else, consider yourself" is often used in competitive and individualistic learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1994). The learning process as it is still happening in education in Indonesia today.
If prepared properly, competitive and individualistic learning to be effective and is a great way to motivate students to do their best. Nevertheless there are some weaknesses in the competitive and individualistic learning, namely (a) students sometimes unhealthy competition, for example if a student answered a question the teacher, other students hope that the answer given is wrong, (b) low ability students will be less motivated, (c) low ability students will be hard for the success and continued to lag, and (d) can frustrate other students (Slavin, 1995). To avoid these things and so that students can help other students to achieve success, then the solution is with cooperative learning.
1.2 Problem Formulation
Based on the above background, then the problem can be formulated as follows:
1. What definition of cooperative learning?
2. How to use cooperative learning math?
3. What are the advantages and weaknesses of cooperative learning?
2.1 Forms of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning can be different in many ways, but can be categorized in accordance with nature: (1) The purpose of the group, (2) individual responsibility, (3) the same opportunity for success, (4) competition group, (5) specialized tasks, and (6) adaptation to individual needs (Slavin, 1995). There are various forms of cooperative learning include the Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), Jigsaw II and Investigation Group (Eggen & Kauchak, 1996).
1). Student Team Achievement Division (STAD)
STAD was developed by Robert Slavin and his colleagues at John Hopkins University (Ibrahim et al. 2000; Ratumanan, 2002). In STAD, students formed the study group consisting of 4 or 5 people of various abilities, gender and ethnicity. In practice, the teacher presents the lesson and then students work in groups to ensure that all group members have mastered the material. Furthermore, students face the individual tests. STAD has 5 components: (1) class presentation, (2) group, (3) quiz or test, (4) individual scores, and (5) appreciation group (Slavin, 1995).
2). Jigsaw II
Jigsaw was first developed by Elliot Aronson and his colleagues at the University of Texas (Ibrahim et al., 2000; Ratumanan, 2002). In a cooperative learning jigsaw form II, students work in groups as in STAD. Students were given materials to study. Each member of the group were randomly assigned to become "expert (expert)" on a particular aspect of the matter. After reading the material, "experts" from different groups gathered to discuss their topic and then return to the original group to teach topics that they controlled to a friend sekelompoknya. Last given another test on all the topics given.
3). Investigation Group
Investigation Team was developed by Shlomo & Yael Sharon in Tel Aviv University (Slavin, 1995). Investigative Group is a cooperative learning strategies that put students into groups to conduct an investigation on a topic. Planning Investigation Team to conduct the same form as in other forms of cooperative learning. Investigating Group Planning involves five stages, namely (1) setting goals, (2) plan for gathering information, (3) form a group, (4) designing group activities, and (5) planning activities of the group as a whole. These stages can be explained as follows.
As in the planning, implementation of activities covering five stages: (1) organizing the group and identification of topics, (2) planning group, (3) implementation of the investigation, (4) analyzing results and preparing reports, and (5) presentation of the report.
There are many more other forms of cooperative learning, for example, Team Assisted Instruction (TAI), Team Game Tournament (TGT), and Think Pair Share (TPS).
2.2 The importance of cooperative learning
The results showed that characteristics of cooperative learning increase learning more than individual learning experiences or competitive (Nur, 2001: 3). Improved learning is not dependent on age students, subjects, or learning activities. Learning tasks such as complex problem solving, critical thinking and conceptual learning improved significantly in the use of cooperative strategies. Students often assume that learning has been completed after they had mastered a number of facts. However they are more likely to use a more high-level thinking during and after the discussion in cooperative rather than competitive when they work or individual. Thus, students learned the material attached to a longer period of time.
Learning with cooperative learning can improve reasoning and thinking power of children and to reduce the activity of memorization. Children can feel that thought better than to memorize so that they will be more motivated in mathematics teaching and learning activities. Coopertive learning that enhance cooperation ties between friends encourage children to become more advanced and work hard and the results of cooperative learning will help people to find someone who works hard and can work together.
In cooperative learning, in addition to required to study the materials provided a student has to learn how to interact with other students in the group. How students act as members of groups and convey ideas in the group will demand special skills.
3.1 Definition of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning is a learning strategy that focuses on grouping students with different levels of academic ability into small groups (Saptono, 2003:32). To the students are taught specific skills to work well together in their group, such as explaining to a friend sekelompoknya, value the opinions of friends, talk with regularly, students who are good at helping the weaker, and so forth.
Cooperative learning is not something new. As a teacher and perhaps as students we never used it or experienced it, for example when working in the laboratory. In cooperative learning, students formed into groups of 4 or 5 people to work together in mastering the material provided teachers (Slavin, 1995; Eggen & Kauchak, 1996; Suherman, 2001). Artzt & Newman (1990:448) states that the cooperative learning students learn together as a team in completing the tasks of the group to achieve common goals. Thus, each group member has equal responsibility for the success of his group
Cooperative learning encompasses a small group of students who work as a team to solve a problem, completing a task, or doing something other to achieve common goals. It is not enough to show a cooperative learning if the students sit together in small groups but solve problems independently. It is not cooperative learning if the students sit together in small groups da invite one of them to menyelelasaikan entire work group. Cooperative learning is emphasized in the presence of peers who interact among each other seabagai a team in completing or mebahas a problem or task.
There are some things that need to be met in order to be more cooperative learning ensures students work cooperatively. These include:
1) The students who are members of a group must feel that they are part of a team and have common goals to be achieved.
2) The students who are members of a group should realize that the problem they face is the problem group and that group's success or failure will be the responsibility shared by all members of the group.
3) To achieve maximum results, students who are members of the group had to talk to each other in discussing his problems. Finally, students who are members of a group should realize that each student work has the effect langsug on the success of the group.
3.2 Use of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning in mathematics will be able to help students improve students' positive attitude in mathematics. The students individually to build the confidence of its ability to solve math problems, so that will reduce and even eliminate anxiety towards mathematics (math anxiety) that more experienced students. Cooperative learning has also proven very useful for students who heterogeneous. By highlighting the interaction within the group, the model is to make students learn to accept other students are enabled and a different background.
The importance of the relationship between peers in the classroom can not be underestimated. If cooperative learning is formed in the classroom, the influence of peers that can be used for positive purposes in mathematics. The students wanted in their group of friends ready and productive in the classroom. The urge friends to achieve good academic achievement is one important factor of cooperative learning. The students are well motivated to learn, ready to work, and be attentive during school hours. This model has also proven to improve critical thinking and improve students' skills in solving problems.
Performing well for this strategy comes with worksheets containing the task or question that needs to be done students. While working in groups, each group member the opportunity to express ideas and provide a response to his opinion. After completing the task groups, each presenting the results of his work in front of the class for discussion by all students.
Examples of the use of cooperative learning math
Topic: The smallest increment of fellowship (KPK) and the largest alliance factor (GCF)
Level: junior high school (junior high)
1. Practice the Commission and determine if a pair of numbers known FPB.
2. Practicing determine the relationship between the Commission, FPB, and the product of a pair of numbers.
3. Practicing record data mathematically.
4. Seeing patterns through analysis.
Group size: 4 people
The materials required for each group:
1. 4 pieces of copy sheets of the problem.
2. 1 sheet to record the results.
3. 1 fruit contains 12 sheets of paper envelopes, each containing a pair of numbers.
*) Appoint a reader and a recorder for each group
*) Appoint a spokesperson for each group if deemed necessary each group to present their work in front of the class.
*) There are pairs of numbers (m, n) which are relatively prime. 1 is a gcd her. That numbers of them are (1, 3), (2, 3), (3, 5), (6, 11), and (8, 15).
*) There is a number pair (m, n) which has the gcd is greater than 1. That numbers of them are (3, 6), (6, 8), (8, 12), (12, 5), (10, 12), (30, 45), (3, 645), and ( 15, 65).
Multiples of the largest pesekutuan (KPK) and the largest alliance factor (GCF)
A student must read the commands while the group members listen. When finished reading the commandments, other members may ask questions or explain the tasks and problems. If the group is ready to begin work, each group member must choose or randomly take three sheets of paper in envelopes that each sheet contains a couple of different numbers.
1. Each student receives three pairs of numbers. Analyze each pair of numbers (m, n) to determine:
a. Multiples of the smallest union of m and n
b. Factors largest alliance of m and n
c. Result times m and n
Example KPK (4, 6) = 12, gcd (4, 6) = 2, mxn = 24
2. Each group member who has completed part of their duties should offer to help his friend in the group.
3. Group members who have completed all the tasks have to exchange the paper work with one group to another friend checking the results of his work.
4. If all pairs of numbers that have been analyzed, the registrar shall write the results of all members of his group in the record sheet.
5. If the group has approved the results, members should discuss the findings and determine the relationship between multiples of the smallest alliance (KPK), the largest alliance factor (GCF), and the time between pairs of numbers.
6. State the relationships it. Then test with four pairs of other numbers, each pair selected by each member.
7. Registrar wrote the group's work, namely the relationship between the Commission, FPB, and the product of pairs of numbers in the record sheet. Furthermore, these results sheets handed to the teacher.
Sheet Notes Results
Members of the group:
Topics problems: KPK, FPB
Pasang bilangan (m , n)
KPK (m , n)
FPB (m , n)
Hasil kali (m,n)
Result times (m, n)
3.3 Advantages And Weaknesses Cooperative Learning
According to Ibrahim et al (2000) Cooperative learning is superior in improving learning outcomes rather than with competitive and individualistic learning. Furthermore, Ibrahim et al (2000) stated that cooperative learning can develop cooperative behavior and better relationships between students, and to develop students' academic abilities. Students learn more from their peers in cooperative learning rather than from teachers.
Ratumanan (2002) states that the interactions that occur in cooperative learning can spur the formation of new ideas and enrich students' intellectual development. By Kardi & Nur (2000) Cooperative learning is very effective for improving relations between tribes and ethnic groups in multicultural classroom and to improve relations between the normal students and students with disabilities.
Johnson & Johnson (1994) stated that cooperative learning can be used in every level of education from kindergarten to college, in all areas of material and in any task. In addition, Slavin (1995) stated that cooperative learning has been used extensively in every subject of education, in all levels of education and in all types of schooling in various parts of the world.
The description above, pushing the need for the implementation of cooperative learning in mathematics learning in particular. The implementation of cooperative learning is necessary because with cooperative learning can be obtained that (1) a deeper understanding because students can learn more, (2) students prefer one another, (3) students have a greater appreciation of self, ( 4) students learn social skills more effectively, (5) Increase the kindness kindness, sensitivity and tolerance, and (6) Cooperative learning can prevent keagresivan in the system of competition and alienation within the system without sacrificing individual cognitive aspects.
Davidson (1991) provides a number of positive implications in learning mathematics by using cooperative learning strategies, which are as follows:
1. Small groups provide social support for learning mathematics. Small groups form a forum where students ask questions, discuss opinions, learning to listen to the opinions of others, provide constructive criticism and conclude their findings in written form.
2. Small groups offer the opportunity for success for all students in mathematics. Interaction within the group is designed for all members learn the concepts and problem solving strategies.
3. Math problem ideally suited for group discussion, because it has a solution that can be demonstrated objectively. A student can affect another student with a logical argument.
4. Students in groups can help other students to master the basic problems and calculation procedures are necessary in the context of games, puzzles, or discussion of the problems that useful.
5. The scope of mathematics filled with interesting ideas and oppose useful when discussed.
6. Mathematics provides an opportunity to think creatively, explore mathematical situations are not limited, to make conjectures and test them with data, to raise issues that arouse interest, and to solve problems that are not routine, students in groups often can handle challenging situations that exceeds the ability of certain individuals at the level of development.
In addition to the advantages possessed by the cooperative learning, there are shortcomings such as:
a. Teachers worry that there will be chaos in class. Conditions like these can be overcome by conditioning the class teacher or learning carried out at a laboratory outside the classroom as in mathematics, hall or in a place that is open.
b. Many students are not pleased when told to cooperate with others. Students who feel the need to work assiduously than other students in their group, while students who are less able to feel inferior is placed in one group with students who are more intelligent. Students who are diligent friends who feel less able to simply ride on the results of his labors. This is nothing to worry about because in cooperative learning is not cognitive but are assessed in terms of affective and psikomotoriknya also considered as cooperation among members of the group, active in the group and the donation amount given to the group.
c. Feelings of anxiety on group members will be the loss of their personal characteristics or uniqueness of having to adjust to the group. Personal characteristics not fade simply because working with others, precisely the uniqueness of the more powerful when juxtaposed with others.
d. Many students fear that the job will not be divided evenly or fairly, that one person should do all the work. In cooperative learning mean the division of tasks, each group member must be able to present what has been gained in the group so that there is individual accountability.
Motivation is a factor present in the individual. This is important to encourage students to increase the success of learning and skills to face life's challenges. Students' motivation levels are not stable, sometimes high, sometimes low, even one day disappear from the self-motivation students. Therefore, the need to apply cooperative learning on mathematics learning in the effort to improve the quality of education. The implementation of cooperative learning in mathematics can use different models and effective when used within a certain time period. Positive atmosphere that arises from cooperative learning provides the opportunity for students to love learning and mathematics teachers. In the fun activities that students feel more motivated to learn and think. But did not rule out unrest in the class will happen.
The success of cooperative learning depends on students and teachers so that teachers need a master system of teaching or assessment of cooperative learning and students take an active role in learning activities. Cooperative learning can be an attractive alternative in increasing students' motivation in school. Cooperative learning in mathematics helps students to interpret correctly the various ideas and concluded that the school should be able to give a latest innovation in this learning.
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