Jumat, 01 April 2011

instructional and teaching media

A. Understanding Learning Media
Development of science and technology increasingly encourage renewal efforts in the utilization of the results of technology in teaching and learning. The teachers are required to be able to use the tools that can be provided by the school, and it is also possible that the tools are in accordance with the developments and demands of the times. Teachers at least can use a cheap and unpretentious, but a necessity in order to achieve the goal of teaching is expected. Besides able to use tools that are available, teachers are also required to develop tools that are available, teachers also can develop the skills required to create a medium of instruction that will be used if the media is not yet available.
For that teachers should have enough knowledge about the medium of instruction, which includes (Hamalik, 1994: 6)

* The media as a communication tool to further streamline the process of learning and teaching;

* The function of the media in order to achieve educational goals;

* The intricacies of the learning process;

* The relationship between teaching methods and educational media;

* The value or benefit of media education in teaching;

* The selection and use of educational media

* Various types of tools and techniques of educational media;

* Media education in each subject;

* Business innovation in educational media.

Thus, it can be concluded that the media is an integral part of the learning process to achieve the goals of education in general and the purpose of teaching in schools in particular.
The word media comes from the Latin medius, which literally means 'middle', 'intermediary' or 'introduction'. In Arabic, the media is the intermediary or introductory message from the sender to the recipient of the message.
If the media was carrying messages or information that aims to contain instructional or teaching purposes then the media was called Learning Media.
B. Benefits of Media In Learning
In a teaching-learning process, two very important elements of teaching methods and teaching media. Both aspects are inter-related. Selection of one particular teaching method will affect the type of medium of instruction is appropriate, although there are various other aspects that must be considered in selecting the media, among others, the purpose of teaching, types of tasks and the expected response of the students mastered the teaching took place, and context of learning, including characteristics of students . Nevertheless, it can be said that one of the main functions of medium of instruction are as teaching aids that help shape the climate, conditions, and learning environment that is organized and created by teachers.
Hamalik (1986) suggested that the use of teaching media in teaching and learning can generate new desires and interests, generate motivation and stimulation of learning activities, and even bring psychological effects on students.
In general, the benefit of the media in the learning process is to facilitate interaction between teachers and students so that learning will be more effective and efficient. But in particular there are some benefits lebh more detailed media Kemp and Dayton (1985) for example, identifies some of the benefits of media in learning, namely:

1. Submission of the subject matter can be made uniform

2. The learning process becomes more clear and interesting

3. The learning process becomes more interactive

4. Efficiency in time and energy

5. Improving the quality of student learning outcomes

6. The media allows the learning process can be done anywhere and anytime

7. Media can foster students' positive attitude toward the material and the learning process

8. Changing role of teachers to a more positive and productive.
In addition to several media benefits as proposed by Kemp and Dayton are, of course we still can find many practical benefits to another. Practical benefits of instructional media in teaching and learning process as follows:

1. Learning media to clarify the presentation of messages and information in order to expedite and improve the processes and learning outcomes

2. Instructional media to enhance and direct the child's attention so that it can lead to motivation to learn, the more direct interaction between students and their environment, and the possibility of students to learn on their own according to his ability and his interest

3. Learning media can overcome the limitations of the senses, space and time

4. The media can provide common experience of learning to the students about the events in their environment, and allows direct interaction with teachers, community, and environment for example through study tours. The visits to museums or zoos.

C. Learning Media Types
Learning Media are so many types and kinds. Start the least simple and inexpensive to sophisticated media and expensive. There are media that can be made by the teacher, there are factory produced media. There is a media that has been available in the immediate environment can be utilized, there is also the media that are specifically designed for learning purposes
Although the media are manifold, but the reality is not many types of media commonly used by teachers in schools. Some of the most intimate media and almost all schools take advantage of the print media (books). besides that many schools that have used other types of media images, models, and Overhead Projector (OHP) and tangible objects. While other media such as audio tapes, video, VCD, slides (film frame), a computer learning program is still rarely used despite the fact that is not foreign to most teachers.
. Selection of Learning Media
Some people choose the media causes include:
a. intend to demonstrate as well as in a lecture on the media;
b. was already familiar with these media,

c. want to give a picture or a more concrete explanation;

d. feel that the media can do more than he could do.

So the basic considerations for selecting the media is very simple, namely to meet the needs or achieve the desired goals or not. Mc. Connell (1974) said that if the media use it as "If The Medium Fits, Use It!" 
In terms of learning theory, various conditions and principles of psychology that deserve consideration in the selection and use of the media are as follows:

1. Motivation

2. Individual Differences

3. Learning objectives

4. Organization of content

5. Preparation prior learning

6. Emotion

7. Participation Feedback

8. Reinforcement (reinforcement)

9. Practice and repetition

10. Practice and repetition

11. Implementation.

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